- Access time: The time taken to retrieve data from a storage device or to obtain data from peripheral unit.
- Alphanumeric: Pertaining to a character set that contains letters, digits and usually other characters such as punctuation marks.
- Background job: A job in an operating system which has a lower priority than jobs being run simultaneously which involve any on-line activity.
- Binary digit: The digit 0(zero) or 1.
- Binary number: A number in the number system with a base of 2.
- Bit: Smallest possible unit of information.
- Bug: any mistake of malfunction of a computer program or system.
- Bus: A line or circuit used for transmitting data or power to a large number of devices.
- Central processing unit: The computer unit that performs execution of instruction.
- Character set: A set of unique symbols arranged in a fixed order used by a device or language to denote information.
- Chip: The tiny bit of silicon that heart of an integrated circuit.
- Cobol: Common business oriented language
- Compile: To translate a computer program written in a higher level source language into a machine language program.
- Computer system: A central processor and associated peripheral units.
- Data processing: The operation performed on data.
- Debug: To locate and correct any errors in a computer program or to correct malfunctions in the computer or its peripheral equipment.
- Downtime: The period during which a computer is not operating correctly due to mechanical or electronic failure or malfunction.
- EDP: Electronic data processing. The processing of data with electronic equipment.
- Executive: A program that helps to manage the operation of a computer system.
- Flow chart: A graphic representation of the definition analysis or solution of a problem in which symbols are used to represent operation, data flow or equipment.
- Foreground: Refers to a high priority computer program that takes precedence over less critical ones, known as background programs.
- FORTRAN: A high level programming language for scientific and mathematical use.
- Hardware: Physical equipment such as mechanical, magnetic, electrical or electronic devices.
- Hexadecimal: Similar to binary except with a base of 16.
- High-level language: Developed to make the task of programming easier.
- Housekeeping: Operations that do not contribute to the solution of a problem but are necessary to the successful operation of the computer program.
- Input: The actual data witch must be put into the computer to accomplish some task.
- Interpreter: A program that translates and executes a single source language instruction at a time, before converting and executing the next one.
- Label: A group of characters used as a symbol to identify an item of data, an area or memory.
- Machine language: Refers to instructions written in machine code which can be immediately obeyed by a computer without translation.
- Main storage: The store from which instruction are executed.
- Memory: The chips in the computer where information and instructions are stored in binary code.
- Microsecond: One millionth of a second.
- Millisecond: One thousandth second.
- Object language: The language or set of coded instruction into which a source language is translated by means of a computer.
- Octal: Similar to binary except with a base of 8.
- Off line: Not connected directly to the main computer system.
- Operating system: An integrated collation of computer programs which supervises the sequencing of computer for immediate processing and immediate results.
- Pack: To compress several items of data in a storage area in such a way that each of the individual items can be recovered at a later time.
- Packed program: Programs and subrouti8nes written written and supplied by the computer manufactures to their customers.
- Pass: One complete cycle in the processing of data, or a machine run.
- Peripheral equipment: Those various units or machines used in combination or conjunction with the computer but one part of the computer itself.
- Procedure: The sequence of actions followed to produce the solution to a problem.
- Processing: Manipulation of information data in order to produce a specific result.
- Processor: A general term for any device capable of carrying out operations on data. Sometimes used as a synonym for central processor.
- Program: A square of instructions written in computer language.
- Programmer: A person who prepares problem solving procedures and flow charts and who may also write and debug routines.
- Programming language: A special language, such as COBOL or basic, in which a program is written so the computer can understand it.
- Queue: A line or group of items of takes in a computer system awaiting service.
- Random access memory: The part of the computer’s memory where data, instructions are stored temporarily.
- Read only memory: The part of the computer’s memory where permanent instructions are stored.
- Real-time: Method of operation where data is absorbed by the computer at the actual time of its occurrence.
- Reserved words: Words that can not be used as data names, file names or procedure names.
- Remote access: Communication between a computer system and one or more stations that are located at a distance from the actual computer system.
- Response time: In time-sharing systems, the elapsed time between the generation of a message at a terminal and the receipt of a replay at the terminal.
- Routine: A set of coded instructions arranged in proper sequence to direct the computer to perform a specific operation or series of operation.
- Serial: The handling of operations or processes in a single device sequential order, one at a time.
- Software: A set of computer programmes or procedures concerned with the operation data processing.
- Source language: A language used by the programmer to write a computer program.
- Source program: The computer program written in high-level language it must be translated in to machine language before it can be run on the computer.
- Storage: Synonymous with memory.
- String: A line of symbols of indefinite length treated as a single unit.
- Structured programming: A systematic procedure for writhing programs in modular form with a clear logical structure.
- Symbolic address: Referring to the memory location by the names of their contents instead of having to remember the numbers of actual address locations.
- System: A combination of processes, procedures or techniques that work together in an organized effort to accomplish specific and desired operations or tasks.
- System analyst: Person trained in the analysis of business problems for solution with the aid of a computing system.
- System programmes: Controls the operations of the computer system.
- Systems software: Consists of all the programs that tie together and co-ordinate the devices that makes up the computer system.
- Terminal: A device or a point for communicating with the computer.
- Time-sharing: A mode of operation in which several users, through numerous terminal devices, share access to work on another program for another short time and so forth.
- Track: The actual path on moving storage medium on which data is recorded.
- Unpack: The separate individual data items previously combined in a single computer word.
- Uptime: The measured time during which equipment is either operating productively or is available for productive work.
- Verify: To check accuracy of a data transcription or other operations.
- Visual display terminals (VDU): A device for entering data with a screen attached to display the data as it is entered. Terminals may be either intelligent (i.e. capable of editing as it is entered) or unintelligent.
- Write: To record data from any source onto an external storage medium such as magnetic or disk.
- Zero suppression: Deleting leading zeros from number in order to make results more readable.
It’s very strange but True Very True.
Now, you do not require any mobile charger to charge your mobiles. Only there is need to use green leaf of peepal tree and after some time your mobile will get charged.
No soon the people came to learn this development; they tested it and found encouraging results. If your mobile has been discharged and you are inside a jungle then you need not to use any charger. You should pluck two peepal leaves and your work would be done.
It is very good idea and easy to charge your mobile. You would have to open your
mobile battery and connect it with peepal leaf. After that without shaking
mobile set you should set the battery in your mobile set. After some time your
mobile would be charged.
Though it is unbelievable but as soon as the residents of Chitrakoot came to
know about the discovery they could not believe the news. But when they saw it
practically then the incident proved true.
Now hundreds of mobile holders are using this technique and charging their
Whereas according to the botanists, it is just changing mutual energy into
electrical energy power can be saved in battery. Similarly, it is also
possible. They said that it is the subject of research.
Step by Step guide to charge your mobile battery using peepal leaf
1- Open your mobile cover
2- Take out your battery
3- Take two to three fresh leaves of peepal/pipal/ ashwattha tree
4- Touch the stub of these leaves on your mobile battery terminal for a minute
5- Clean the mobile battery terminal with the soft cloth
6- Put your battery again in your mobile and switch it on
7- Now you can see the result
8- If required repeat the process with fresh leaves
- Aleaxander discovered telephone in 1876.
- Loading coils are used and long distances conversation will be possible in 1900.
- George Campbell and Michel Khupi started telephone line in New York and Boston.
- John Ambrose Fleming discovered vacuum tube and conversations will be possible in long distance and intercontinental telephone business is possible now.
- Graham bell establish telephone line between San Francisco and New York. This telephone line is world’s biggest telephone line. It contains 130000 polls and 2500 ton copper wire.
- A type of Rounded dials telephone discovered in 1919. This doesn’t require operator and users can talk buy dialing numbers.
- Different frequencies type band is founded. In this multiple lines on single phone has been possible in 1920.
- Telephone users have increase. In America number system is start. And seven digit numbers phone will be developed in 1947.
- In 1949 different color and design are phone are made.
- Long distance calls has been possible with help of exchange operator in 1951.
- Cable line has been placed in Atlantic Ocean. Phone communication has been started between America and Britain.
- A type of push button phone will be developed in 1963.
- Emergency call like 911 numbers had been started in 1968.
- Bell lab’s Martin Kapoor developed first mobile phone in 1973.
- Fiber optic was started used in phone connection in 1975.
- In 1978 new cellular phone system started and 2000 costumer was tasted it. This system tower was spread in short range.
- After 1990 many mobile companies and telephone companies received significant growth in telecom sector.
- Only in America in 1984 there was 25000 customers it increased for 100 million in 2000.
Do you know the person who has transformed a prison into an Ashram? Do you know the police officer who has turned prisoners into businessmen, student and professionals? You must have guessed the name: it is Kiran Bedi, India’s first women IPS officer. Nothing can stop those who have a strong will and commitment to take on challenges courageously. In fact, challenges bring out the best in them. Kiran Bedi is one such courageous person.
Kiran Bedi born on 14th June in 1949, in Amritsar, was interested in tennis and other sports. She was enthusiastic and courageous. It was her dream to become a police officer.
She did not rest until her dream was fulfilled. She has proved to be a hard-working, strict and law-abiding officer. Which her compassion to behavior, Kiran has been able to transform over 8500 prisons into good citizens. Her efforts have been recognized nationally and internationally. She was awarded the Magsaysay award. At present, she is the advisor UNO peace keeping force. She has also been awarded the Padma Vibhushan for her services to the nation.
Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful and costly tombs in the world. The Mugal Emperor Shahjahan ordered it built in memory of his favorite wife Mumtaz mahal. Who died in 1629 A D.
Situated in the city of Agra in the banks of the river Yamuna, the Taj is enclosed in a garden amongst fountains and ornamental trees. The walled complex includes two mosques and an imposing gateway. The tomb is encased in white marble which is decorated with flawless sculptures and inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy cut form precious gems. Below the dome in a dimly lit chamber lie the mortal remains of Shahjahan and beloved wife, Queen Mumtaz Mahul, reminding the world of their annoying love. It reds on a platform of red sandstone. At each corner of the platform stands a slendes minaret. The Taj Mahal is one of the most beautiful architectural works the world without doubt, The Taj Mahal ranks as amongst the perfect buildings in the world, flawlessly proportionate, bait entirely out of marble. Intended to be a commutation of the memory of Shahjahan’s beloved wife, in reality it is his gift to the entire Haman race.
Many of us begin our day with a cup of tea in one hand, and a newspaper in the other. The world is developing very fast. Hence it becomes very essential for us to keep in touch with the latest news in every field of activity in this world.
Newspaper means North, East, West, South paper. It informs us that what is new in the world? They also inform people about political, social and cultural developments, sports, art etc. it is one of the most active and effective media.
The newspapers also carry a diverts events for buying or selling goods, employment, sales. List of TV programmers, railway and airlines time tables, cinema lists are also printed in the newspaper. Newspapers help to reveal the wrongs or injustice done in society.
Social evils like dowry, child marriages, child labour, and exploration of women are exposed by the newspaper. They expose criminals and frauds and the corrupt.
Such news creates false alarm. Thus newspapers have power both for good and for evil. Thus, by giving us information on every topic under sun, the newspapers are indeed our best friends.
Human body is a wonderful machine. It performs several functions without rest form the birth. The main organs of the human body are lungs, heart, kidney, liver and brain.
Each system carries out a major function. The brain gives us intelligence to use our physical and mental abilities. The skin covers the human body. Skin is a flexible covering which protects the body. The body’s strong internal framework called skeleton and skin, there are about 500 muscles. Never spread from the brain to all part of the body. They carry signals in the form of tinny electrical impulse, the sense organs namely eyes, nose, tongue and skin pass the message to brain automatically which controls breathing, heart beat, digestion etc. the body keeps on growing. The peak of physical growth is reached at about 18 to 25 years of age. When we grow old the skin becomes wrinkled and less elastic. The joint become inflexible muscles, loose and bones weak.
At the climax of life the body gives up and death occuses. Human body is a most valuable gift of god. A healthy body contains a healthy brain and healthy soul. As such it is very important to take care of our body. For this regular exercise, control over eating habits, cleanliness of body and discipline of life style are essential in daily life.
What is English?
- English is an international language.
- It is a compulsory subject.
- English is link between two unknown persons.
- It is powerful medium for Information technology [IT].
How improve English?
• E – Eagerness
• N – Non-stop efforts
• G – Grammar hold
• L – learning desire
• I – Inspiration
• S – Sincerity
• H – Hopeful
We conclude this story of ramanujan by paying our tribute to this great genius and pride to India through a magic square, a topic which fascinated him in his younger days. The first row in the following four-by-four magic square (which magic sum 139) is Ramanujan’s date of birth:
A meeting was organized in the Jallianwala Bagh of Amritsar on April 13, 1919 opposing the treachery committed against the movement opposing the Rowlett Act and against the arrest their popular leaders. Section 144 was imposed. Even than, without taking any notice of it, thousands of people gathered there. General Dyer reached there with the troops. Without giving any previous warning, he ordered the troops to open firing form machine gun on innocent people. There were high walls on four sides of the Bagh. In the middle of the Bagh was an old and unused well. There was no other route of escape except one narrow lane. There fore a number of people fell victim of this firing. As per government report, 379 people were killed and 1200 were injured. As per opinion of inquiry committee appointed by the Congress, 1000 people were shot dead. It is matter of regret that the Hunter commission who inquired about this event, also defended General Dyer, forgave him considering it and unknowing mistake. On the other hand, when he returned to England, he was honoured with sword and 2000 pounds. This gave a terrible shock to the people of India. Jalianwala Bagh massacre moved Gandhiji and his faith towards the British was totally lost.
Due to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, mass opinion was create against the British rule not only in Punjab (India) but also in entire nation. In fact, it played and important role in establishing unity from Kashmir to Kanyakumari and Karachi to Cuttack. This tragedy also provided ground fore the future non-co-operation movement.